Wednesday, April 23, 2014

Recherla Chiefs



996 AD - 1052 AD : Recherla Brahma or Bamma
Founder : General of Beta I (996 AD - 1052 AD)
Defeated a Choda King and carried away as a trophy of war the doors of kanchi.

1052 AD - 1076 AD : Muccha

General of Prola I (1052 AD - 1076 AD)

1076 AD - 1108 AD : Kata I / Kataya

General of Beta II (1076 AD - 1108 AD)
It can fairly be surmised that Beta II could not have achieved this distinction without the support of Kata I.

116 AD - 1157 AD : Kama Chamupati
General of Prola II (1116 AD - 1157 AD)
The Palampet inscription127 giving the genealogy of Recherla Rudra incidentally records that his grand father Kama, defeated Manthenya Gunda in a battle.


Kama had three sons and a daughter, viz, Kata II, Beti Reddi, Nami Reddi and Vallasani by Kashambika.

Beta, Kata II and Nama flourished in the reign of Rudra.

1158 AD - 1190 AD : Kata II
General of Rudradeva / Prataparudra I (1158 AD - 1195 AD)

1190 AD - 1262 AD : Recherla Rudra
Son of Kata II was the famous Recherla Rudra General for Kakatia kings Rudradeva, Mahaadeva and Ganapatideva.

Rudra in his last days deputed his general Recherla Rudra to subdue the Bottu chief of Koravi. 

When Kakati Rudra died in 1195 AD, many enemies tried to conquer the territory. General Recherla Rudra defeated Nagati Bhopal and all other enemies and ruled kakatiya kingdom from 1199 AD to 1202 AD after the death of Kaktiya King Mahadeva (1195 - 1199 AD) until the return of captured Kakatiya King Ganapatideva in 1202 AD.


Pillalamarri branch

Founders : Beti Reddi & Recherla Nami Reddi


1195 AD : Beti Reddi 
Bet Reddi and Nami Reddi are generals under Kakiti Rudradev (1158 - 1195). Beti Reddi probably died in 1195 in a battle with Yadava King Jaitugi.
Namireddi might have died around 1202 AD.


1202 AD : Recherla Nami Reddi : The Trikutalayam, Nameshwaralayam constructed by Recherla Nami Reddy in 1195 century, Erukeshwaralayam constructed by Recherla Bethi Reddy’s wife Erukasanamma located at Pillalamarri village near Suryapet.

Nagatiraja was the younger brother of Bottu Kusumaditya of the Mudigonda Chalukya family ruling Visurunadu, comprising the region of the present Khammam district. Recherla Rudra inflicted a crushing defeat on Nagati who fled the battle.


1202 AD - : Chevi Reddi or Bhetala Reddi, nephew of Recharla Nami reddy. They ruled the Pillalamarri and Nagulapadu regions of Nalgonda district as grand subordinate rulers. Their native place was Amangallu of Miryalaguda taluq. Bethala reddy was appointed as the ruler of Amanagallu by Kakatiya Ganapatideva.

Bethala Reddy/ Nayaka had 4 sons- Eldest two- Damanaidu and Prasaditya naidu were chiefs of army of Rudramadevi and were held in high place in the Kakatiya kingdom.

1262 AD - 1289 AD : Prasaditya Nayaka
Prasaditya nayaka, who helped Rudramadevi to became the ruler of Kakaityas, was given the titles of Kakatiya Sthapanacharya and Rayapita Mahanka. (when Rudramadevi ascended the throne, her relatives on one side and Yadava kings on the other, who could not agree to the notion of a woman becoming the ruler, attacked Orugallu. Prasaditya nayaka defeated them and consolidated her rule.) According to Velugoti Vamsavali, the credit for establishing the ‘Nayankara system’ to protect the Kakatiya empire goes to Prasaditya Nayaka. 


1289 AD - 1323 AD : Vennama Nayaka  son of Prasaditya nayaka was famous as the chief of army of Prataparudra. Later, his son Eradacha nayaka and Naladacha nayaka, son of sabbinayaka (another son of Prasaditya nayaka) also had worked as chiefs of Prataparudra’s armies.

1289 AD - 1326 AD : Era Dacha
During the Kakatiyas battles with Pandya and Hoyasala dynasties, Eradacha nayaka played a key role. Prataparudra, who was impressed by his valor, gave him two titles of ‘Pancha Pandyadala Vibhala’ and ‘Pandya Gajakesari’, Eradacha nayaka had’three sons- namely Singama nayaka-I, Vennama nayaka and Echama nayaka. (Naladacha nayaka had 2 sons- named- Madhava nayaka and Damaneedu. Of them, Singama nayaka had became famous.

1326 AD - 1361 ADSingama nayaka-I

After Warangal was captured by Muslim rulers, Musunuri Nayakas revolted against them at around 1335 A.D. During that time, Kapaya nayaka Musunuri dynasty was helped by Singama nayaka. Later Singama nayaka had became independent and extended his kingdom towards the south upto the coast of river Krishna. He had to fight with Kapaya nayaka later while he was trying to expand his kingdom towards the North, but failed in that. He attacked the ‘Jallipalli fort’ during his expansion programmes and was killed in battle by the Soma dynasty Kshatriyas. Singama nayaka had two sons- Anavotha nayaka and Mada nayaka. He ruled with Amanagallu as his capital.


Later establishes his own independent Kingdom with Rachakonda, now in Nalgonda Dist, as his capital.

1361 AD - 1384 AD Anavotha nayaka

Anavotha nayaka, son of Singama nayaka came to rule after his father and changed his capital from Amanagallu to Rachakonda. He, alongwith his brother Mada nayaka, fought several battles with the Kondaveeti Reddy rulers and Vijayanagara rulers. He also killed the Musunuri ruler Kapaya nayaka in 1368. He conquered the Warangal, Panagallu and Bhuvanagiri forts and took the title of “Tribhuvana Rayarao’. Anavotha nayaka attacked the Jallipalli fort, killed Soma dynasty rulers and took the title of ‘Somakula parasura- ma’. He divided his kingdom into Northern and Southern regions for ease of administration; made Rachakonda the capital of North and ruled it him¬self; made Devarakonda as the capital of South and appointed his younger brother Mada nayaka as its ruler. From then onwards, descendants of Anavotha nayaka ruled from Rachakonda and descendants of Mada nayaka ruled from Devarakonda. According to the ‘Simhachala inscriptions’ issued by him, Anavotha nayaka also invaded the Kalinga kingdom in 1356 and 1358 A.D.


1384 AD - 1399 ADSingama nayaka-II

Singama nayaka-II, son of Anavotha nayaka succeeded his father and ruled with Bellamkonda as his capital. He had two titles- ‘Kumara singama’ and ‘Sarvajna singa bhupala’. As he conquered the Kalyan fort, he also got the title of ‘Kalyana Bhupathi’. He be friended to the Bahmani Sultans and defeated the Vijayanagara rulers, with their help, when they attacked the Telangana region. ‘Vijayanagara inscription of 1384 reveals his victory over the Vijayanagara rulers. He captured the ‘Bendapudi’ fort dining his invasion of Kalinga kingdom. He had 3 titles-‘Andhra Mandaladheeswara’, ‘Pratidanda Bhairava’ and ‘Bhattu narayana’.
Patron of Literature

Singama nayaka-II was a poet himself and he patronised a number of poets in his court. Two of them were Visweswara and Bommakanti Appayamatya. Visweswara wrote the ‘Chamat kara Chandrika’ and Appayamatya wrote commentary on ‘Amarakosam‘, a grammar book.
Singama nayaka himself wrote 2 books-‘Rasvama Sudhakaram’, and ‘Sangitha Sudha karam’ and a drama called ‘Ratna panchalika’ with the pen name of Kuvalayavali. Famous poet Srinatha once visited his court. He had 6 sons, of whom Immadi Anavotha nayaka succeeded him.
(Immadi) 


1399 AD -1421 ADAnavotha nayaka-II

He was also called as Kumara Anavothaneedu and Pinna Annama nayakudu. The book, Velugoti Vamsavali’ reveals his victories. According to this book, he fought battles with Kondaveeti and Rajamahendravaram Reddy rulers and Vijayanagara rulers along with the Bahmani sultans. But his friendship with the Bahmani sultans did not last long. When Vijayanagara rulers captured the Panagallu region in 1417, they fought with the then Bahmani sultan Feroz Shah. During this war, the Recharla's helped the Vijayanagara rulers and Anavota nayaka died in battle.

1421 AD - 1430 ADMadanayaka
After the death of Anavotha nayaka-II, his younger brother Madanayaka had become the ruler.
After the battle of Panagallu, the recherla's maintained enmity with the Bahmani Sultans and helped the Vijayanagara rulers in every way they could. During the battle between Ahmed Shah (Bahmani sultan) and Devaraya-II in 1424, Madanayaka helped the latter. Because of this, though Ahmed Shah made peace with Devaraya after the battle was over, he sent his deputy, Azam Khan to capture Warangal (kingdom of Mada naya- ka). In this battle, Azam Khan captured not only Warangal,but also many forts in Rachakonda and Devarakonda kingdoms. But later, when Ahmed Shah was in battle with Gajapathi kingdom, the Recherla rulers of Rachakonda and Devarakonda defeated Azam Khan and recaptured their forts.
Mada nayaka was great scholar and follower of Vaishnavism. He was a disciple of Venkatacharya, son of Ramanujacharya. Mada nayaka wrote a commentary of Ramayana with the name of ‘Raghaveeyam’ and dedicated it to Lord Rama. He also donated the village of Torrur’ to Lord ‘Sri Ranganatha Swamy’ with the name of ‘Srirangapuram Agraharam’. His wife Nagambika built a tank called ‘nagasamudra’ near Rachakonda.


1430 AD - 1475 ADSingama nayaka-III

Singama nayaka-III was the son of Anavotha nayaka and was the last ruler of his dynasty. He had a title- ‘SarvagnaSingabhupala’, (his grand¬father Kumara Singajna nayaka also had the same title). He ruled for around 45 years. The decline of this kingdom started during his reign. He had two more titles- Mummadi Singama nayaka and Sarvajna rao Singama nayaka.

The Recharla made an accord with the Bahmani sultans in 1433. Ahmed Shah occupied the fort of Rayagiri. The region of Rachakonda was captured by Bahmani Sultans between 1433-35. Recherla nayakas recaptured the fort of Devarakonda with the help of Kapileswara Gajapati and continued to reclaim all other forts under the Muslims. According to the inscription of Hariveeradeva, of 1461, the Recharla rulers regained the Warangal fort also. Hariveeradeva, who issued the above inscription was the son of Kapileswara Gajapati. The army of Gajapatis who helped the Recherla Nayaks was under his control.

Dharmanayudu, brother of Singama nayaka-III was appointed as the ruler of Warangal. He issued the ‘Shayampet inscription’ in l462 A.D. Later, Warangal remained under the ruler of Recharla nayakas for two decades. During the reign of Sultan Nizam Shah, the muslim rulers again tried to capture forts in Rachakonda and Devarakonda kingdoms but the armies of Kapileswara Gajapati, sent to help the Recharla rulers prevented this. But the Recherla nayakas had became subordinate kings to Kapileswara Gajapati. After Singama nayaka, the Recharla kingdom declined and their descendants took shelter in the court of Vijayanagara rulers.

Recharla nayakas were very good patrons of literature and arts. They gave equal importance to Sanskrit and Telugu. Kumara Singama nayaka, who had a title of ‘Sarvajna Chudamani’ wrote a grammar book called ‘Rasamava Sudhakaram’; a commentary called ‘Sangeeta Sudhakaram’ on Sarangadeva’s Sangeeta Ratnakara and also a drama called ‘Ratna Panchalika’. Bommakanti Appayamatya, who wrote a commentary for ‘Amarakosa’ and Visweswara, who wrote the ‘Chamatkara Chandrika’ were the court poets of Recherla nayakas. Srinatha visited the court of Sarvajna Singabhupala and Bammera Pothana lived in the Rachakonda kingdom during Singamanayaka’s-II reign. Pothana was famous for his ‘Maha Bhagavata’ narration.








Venkatagiri Branch
Pedda Yachama Naidu

Recherla rulers shifted their capital from Velugodu to Venkatagiri during the reign of Pedda Yachama Naidu.

Venkatapathi Raya II
He also had ruled his southern territories with Madurantakam as second capital which was granted by Venkatapathi Raya II of Aravidu dynasty of Vijayanagar who ruled from Chandragiri. Later Venkatagiri Rajas abandoned Madhurantakam and ruled their southern territories with North Mallur in Chitoor district as their capital. 

Raja Bangaru Yachama Naidu Bahudur was trecherously murdered when he was unarmed in 1693 AD on the day of Mahanavami by Zu-l-faqar khan, Nawab of vellore during reign of Aurangazeb. Later on 14 taluks were granted to Sarwagna Yachedra, son of assassinated King by Khan with the approval of Emperor in order to prevent heirs of the rajah from complaining to emperor about the murder. After this, the Administration of the kingdom has been transferred completely from north Mallur to Venkatagiri. 

As per the permanent settlement made with Britishers an "Isthimiral" dated 24 August 1802 was issued to Rajah fixing an annual Periskash of Rs,4,44,232. Thus estate became part of British India. Venkatagiri samsthanam when it was a part of erstwhile Madras Presidency consisted of 736 Villages in addition to that it consisted 617 majara villages.

Nirvana Rayappa Naidu surnamed Pedda Rayudu, 15th descendant, is an important member, for he was the founder of the place and the Dynasty known as Velugodu. He was a contemporary of the great Carnatic Ruler Krishna Deva Raya living in the sixteenth century and was in the earlier part of his life-time a subject Prince and Commander-in-Chief of Krishna Raya

Kumara Rangappa Naidu,21st descendent, was the founder of a line of kings at Bobbili, granted Rajam Estate in 1652 by Sher Muhammed Khan, Nawab of Chicacole, in whose honour it was renamed Bebbooly, later corrupted into Bobbili.

1848 AD – 1878 ADVelugoti Sri Raja Kumara Yachendra Naidu, 27th Raja of Venkatagiri. Three of his seven sons were given in adoption to Pithapuram, Bobbili and Jetprole.He was awarded "Stars of India" by British Queen for his great administration. He proposed and propagated "Manasakhyam Principle",a principle saying intuition is God.

1878 AD – 1916 ADVelugoti Sir Raja Gopala Krishna Yachendra, G.C.I.E., K.C.S.I., Member of Legislative Council (Madras) 1888, Kaiser-i-Hind Medal.

1916 AD – 1937 ADVelugoti Sir Govinda Krishna Yachendra, K.C.I.E.
Raja Venugopala Krishna Yachendra, born on 11 February 1874, founded the Veterinary Hospital in Madras, and was the recipient of a First-class Kaiser-i-Hind Gold Medal from the Government of India. He was also known for his love on riding and sports. In 1893 he went to England with his brother, the Maharajah of Bobbili and had an inter- view with His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales ; he died unmarried on 25 June 1920.

Raja Velogoti Muthu Krishna Yachendra is the person who promoted education in the area. He undertook RVM High School, Venkatagiri established in 1860 for developing it and established Venkatagiri Town Club in 1891AD.

In 1947, Venkatagiri became a part of the newly independent Indian Republic and the kingdom was dissolved. The Velugoti Family still commands a great respect and influence in the region. The 32nd raja of Venkatagiri died in 2010.



Journal Of The Andhra Historical Research Society Volume V Part 4 April 1931


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