Friday, January 3, 2014

Hyderabad History

Hyderabad the capital of Telangana, founded in the year 1591 by Mohammed Quli Qutub Shah, the fifth sultan of Qutb Shahi dynasty, offers a fascinating panorama of the past, with richly mixed cultural and historical tradition spanning over 400 years. It is one of the fastest growing cities of India and has emerged as a strong industrial, commercial, technology center, gives a picture of glimpses of past splenders and the legacy of its old history.

300 BC - 185 BC :  Mauryan Empire
Archaeologists excavating near the city have unearthed Iron Age sites that can be dated to 500 BCE.The area around Hyderabad was ruled by the Mauryan Empire in the third century B.C during the reign of Ashoka the Great. 

230 BC  – 220 AD : Satavahanas  ( Were vassals of Mauryan Empire)​
After the death of Ashoka (232 BCE), as the Maurya Empire began to weaken and decline, the Sātavāhanas who started out as feudatories to the Mauryan dynasty, declared independence and established their empire in this region. he territory of the empire covered much of the Deccan plateau & central India for 450 years

220 AD - 250 AD : Ikshvaku Tribe 
After the decline of the Satavahana Empire in 220 AD, the region came under the rule of the Telugu Ikshvaku dynasty (225 AD - 325 AD), the successors of the Satavahanas in the eastern Deccan.

250 AD - 500 AD : Vakataka Dynasty

500 AD - 543 AD : Vishnukundins
The boulder with inscriptions of Vishnukundins period at Chaitanyapuri in Hyderabad was discovered by Dr. Sastry

543 AD - 753 AD : Badami Chalukyas

753 AD - 982 AD : Rashtrakuta Dynasty

982 AD - 1158 AD : Western Chalukyas (Kalyani Chalukyas)

1158 AD - 1323 AD : Kakatiya Dynasty

1323 AD - 1336 AD : Tughlaq Dynasty

1325 AD – 1350 AD : Musunuri Nayaks

1518 AD – 1687 AD : Qutbshahis / Golconda Sultanate
Quli Qutb Shah seized the reins of power from the Bahamani kingdom in 1512 and established the fortress city of Golconda. Inadequacy of water, and frequent epidemics of plague and cholera persuaded Mohammed Quli Qutub Shah to venture outward to establish new city with the Charminar at its centre and with four great roads fanning out four cardinal directions. 

During the Qutb Shahi reign Golconda became one of the leading markets in the world of diamonds, pearls, steel for arms, and also printed fabric. The glory of the Golconda kingdom ended in 1687, after a valiant struggle. Aurangzeb, the last great Mughal ruler, captured Golconda after a siege that lasted eight months. 

From nawabs and pearls to the world's hi-tech happening point, the city's journey is fascinating. The sprawling metropolis is coming to terms with itself at the start of the new millenium. The Qutb Shahi dynasty founded the Kingdom of Golconda, one of the five kingdoms that emerged after the break up of the Bahamani Kingdom. The Qutb Shahis ruled the Deccan for almost 171 years.All the seven rulers were patrons of learning and were great builders. They contributed to the growth and development of Indo-Persian and Indo-Islamic literature and culture in Hyderabad.

Abul Hasan Tana Shah, the last king of Golconda, was imprisoned at Daulatabad, where he died after twelve years in captivity.

1687 AD - 1724 AD : Mughal Empire 
Hyderabad's fame, strategic location and Golconda's legendary wealth attracted Aurangazeb who captured Golconda after a long seize in 1687. After this defeat the importance of Hyderabad declined and the city fell into partial ruins. As the Moghul empire decayed and began to disintegrate, the viceroy, Asaf Jah I proclaimed himself the Nizam and established independence rule of the Deccan.

1724 AD - 1948 AD : Asaf Jahis
With the conquest of the Deccan and the South, Aurangzeb succeeded in expanding the Mughal Empire to cover the entire sub-continent. However, after his death in 1707, the Empire rapidly declined. At that time , the Deccan was administered by a Subedar or viceroy of the Mughal Emperor. Mir Quamaruddin, the Governor of the Deccan, who bore the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk Feroze Jung Asif Jah, declared his independence from Mughal rule in 1724.He thus became the first Nizam and the founder of the Asif Jahi dynasty. 

Hyderabad once again became a major capital city, ruled by successive Nizams of the Asaf Jahi dynasty until the state was merged into Indian Union in 1948.

SECUNDERABAD: In 1798, a subsidiary alliance for military and political cooperation was signed between the Nizam and the British East India company. There after an area north of what is now the Hussain Sagar was established as a cantonment. The area was named Secunderabad after the then Nizam, Sikander Jah.

Asif Jah I continued to maintain Aruangabad, which had been founded by the Mughal rulers as the capital of his new state. In 1769, Nizam Ali Khan Asif Jah II, shifted the capital to Hyderabad. The seven Nizam's of the Asif Jahi dynasty ruled the Deccan for nearly 224 years, right up to 1948. During the Asif Jahi period, Persian, Urdu, Telugu and Marathi developed simultaneously. The highest official positions were given to deserving persons irrespective of their religion.

Persian was the official language up to 1893 and then Urdu up to 1948. When the British and the French spread their hold over the country, the Nizam soon won their friendship without bequeathing his power. The title "Faithful. Ally of the British Government" was bestowed on Nizam VII. The British stationed a Resident at Hyderabad, but the state continued to be ruled by the Nizam. The rule of the seven Nizam's saw the growth of Hyderabad both culturally and economically. Huge reservoirs, like the Nizam Sagar, Tungabadra, Osman Sagar, Himayath Sagar, and others were built. Survey work on Nagarjuna Sagar had also begun during this time. Hyderabad, under the Nizam's, was the largest princely state in India. Area wise it was as big as England and Scotland put together. The State had its own currency, mint, railways, and postal system. There was no income tax.




http://www.ghmc.gov.in/hyd/hydhistory.asp



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