Thursday, January 2, 2014

Adilabad History

Adilabad has a colorful history considering that it was the place ofconvergence for many cultures and religions. The region also enjoys the distinction of having been ruled by many north Indian dynasties that include the Mauryas, Bhonsle Rajas of Nagpur and the Mughals. 

Adilabad was also part of the south Indian rulers belonging to dynasties of Satavahanas, Vakatakas, Rashrakutas, Kakatiyas, Chalukyas and Imad Shahis of Berar. The reason behind this is the geographical location of the town. It lies on the border of both central and southern India which made the region vulnerable to attacks and invasions from both sides. As a result, the modern history of Adilabad is an interesting amalgamation of the Marathi and Telugu cultures. The local population of Adilabad follows traditions that are a mix of the two cultures, but these traditions have now become an integral part of the daily lives of the people. Also, the Bengali, Rajasthani and Gujarati cultures have found prevalence in the area.

Adilabad gained maximum prominence during the time of the Mughals. Aurangzeb appointed an officer from his administration known as the Viceroy of Deccan, to take care of his kingdom down south. Under the reign of Aurangzeb, the region developed into a major financial and business hub. The town conducted import and export of spices, cloth and other products with neighbouring towns and cities and even with places as far as Delhi. Aurangzeb ensured that the economy of this region of Deccan was taken care of. He did so because he knew that in order to be recognised as the Emperor of India, he had to keep the Adilabad region of south India under his control.

The economic condition of Adilabad was in a good position, but all this was to be changed when the East India Company came to Deccan. The Nizam traded Adilabad and the surrounding areas for money. During the 1860 revolt the people of Adilabad, under the leadership of Ramji Gond, revolted against this barter. Again in the 1940s the region of Adilabad played an important role in India’s struggle for complete independence.

The ancient traces of history from jurrasic period was found in many places like utnoor and interior areas of chennur taluqa, , mancheryal and khanapur taluqas.also traces of neolithic period is also unearthed here.
It is one of the district having sites of all the phases(stone age, mesolithic and neolithic) of pre-history.Also proto-historic sites are also found.It enabled the historians to construct the history in a systematic way.

Early rule of shatavahanas started from the luxettipet area, as per the historians.This famous dynasty of telugu people had gifted many advantages by Ruling all over India for some time.Kotilingala , an ancient capital of shatavahanas is also very nearest place to Adilabad district.

The achievements of shatavahanas includes well established Administration., flourishing internal and external trade,Literary development, uniting the telugu people under one roof and also unitingIndia, defeating the foriegn invaders, religious development.

The coins of shatavahanas reveals various aspects include their victories over other kings,flourishing economy, foriegn trade, standardised systems, etc.The insciptions reveals the greatness of the kings, territories of Rule, Administration, etc.

The literary development includes katantra vyakaranam by shvaravarma, Gatasaptashathi compiled by Hala (shatavahana king),Brihatkatha by Gunadya, written In paishachi language.out of above, katantra vyakarana is the earliest book on sanskrit grammer.Gatasaptashati is a book on compilation of stories, which is a pioneer in the story literature of the world and emulated by many languages.Brihathkatha was a great book written in the local language for first time other than sanskrit.It caused for the development of local languages and literature in local languages.

Yagnasri shatakarni, a shatavahana king was contemporary to Acharya Nagarjuna, a famous Buddhist scholar.Nagarjuna wrote a letter by name Sruhallekha to Yagnasri.Yagnasri is believed to be helped the Nagarjuna to carryout his activities. Thus, contribution was made for the scientific, literary, religious development , which reached to many lands of world.

Vatsayana wote Kamasutra during this period and mentioned a shatavahana king kunthala shatakarni. It is a famous book on sexology, translated to many languages of the world.

Jainadh is also a famous jain and Hindhu centre of ancient period.the temple of Jainadh was built during Chalukya was built with black sand is architecturally very beautiful.There are many inscriptions are existing on the walls of this temple.A very beautiful koneru (temple tank) was constructed. It has beautified the location of temple.presently, the tank is in ruins.Temple was earlier known as Suryanarayana temple.presently, it is known as laxminarayana temple. Here, satyanarayana swami pujas use to take place on every full moon atteacts the devotees from various surrounding states.It is a belief that all the wishes are fulfilled, if it is prayed in laxminarayana swami temple.Sun rays would fall on the diety directly on two perticular days in a year.

It reveals the scientific advancement of ancient indian sculptures.

It is also believed that the mythological Parushurama is believed to be visited the Papahareshwara temple at kadile near Nirmal.There exists a beautiful Nandi in that shiva temple.It is one of the earliest nandi idol in India.

Bhainsa is also another centre of Buddhist is believed that Mahishasaka sect was prevailing in the olden days. It is also a Hindhu centre.Mahisasuramardhini is believed to had killed the demon Mahishasura.The legs of Mahishasura is still lying near the filterbeds at Mysammagutta, Bhainsa.There is an ancient shiva temple is existing in bhainsa on the bank of a tank.

The nimma nayaka kings built the wonderful forts in and around the nirmal town.They had brought people from other places for the purpose of construction.

The chain of tank system is a wonderful innovation of Nirmal kings.Its catchment area is from the Mahaboobghat on the sahyadri hills and about 13km away from the main town.The cyphons were used to control the flow of water to different tanks.The scientific advancement in connecting water tanks and diverting water is highly applaudable and a book can be written on this single subject.The connected tanks are Bangalpet tank, Ramraobagh tank, kurannapet tank, manjulapur tank, alur tank, etc.Finally the excess water disposses into the swarna river .The advantages of this system is that catchment area is extended, water storage capacity increased there by ground water table increased,Agricultural , flora and fauna development took place,floods can be controlled and wastage of water is controlled.

The nizam period has witnessed the development of infrastucure to certain extent.soan bridge was constructed over the river Godavari. It was the one the earliest bridges in India. He also constructed a barrage at sadarmat on river Godavari. It has icreased the food production in the area, leading to food security.

The great KomaramBheem fought against the oppression of rights of the tribals.This has brought geeat change in the attittude in the rulers.They have appointed Hymendwarf, a great sociologist to study the lives of tribals.The extensive studies has brought many facts in to the light.These recommendations have become torchbearers in dealing with the tribal communities in other parts of British India.

On the otherhand, komaramBheem has become a god to all the tribals. He is seen as the pioneer to the telangana activists.His birth anniversary attracts many people from different parts of country.