Saturday, December 26, 2015

Telangana History

Telangana, is the youngest 29th state of India born on June 2, 2014. 

Capital    : Hyderabad
Districts  : 31 
Area       : 1,14,840 sq. km (44,340 sq. mi)
Population : 3.52 crore or 3,52,86,757 (2011)

Bird       : Indian Roller or Blue jay (Palapitta)
Animal     : Deer (Jinka)
Tree       : Shami Tree or Prosopis Cineraria(Jammi chettu)
Sport      : Kabaddi
Flower     : Tangedu Flowers or Tanner’s Cassia or Senna Auriculata

Bhadradri is the largest district with an area of 8,062 km2 (3,113 sq mi) and Hyderabad is the smallest with 217 km2(84 sq mi). 

Hyderabad district is the most populated district with a population of 35,269,257 and Rajanna Sircilla district is the least populated with 546,694.

3,00,000 BC - 5000 BC : Stone Age 
The longest period of human existence which lasted about 2.5 million years. The Stone Age is divided into 3 periods.

3,00,000 BC - 50,000 BC : Paleolithic (Old Stone Age)
The Paleolithic Era(Old Stone Age) began when hominins first made tools. These tools were used to make there lives easier.
Paleolithic people lived in temporary shelters like tents or caves because they were nomads. 
Early Stone Age tools were found in various places in Telangana.
Stone tools of this period are of the core type, made by chipping of stone to form a cutting edge, or the flake type, made from fragments struck of stones. Hand axes were the typical tools of these early hunters and food gathers.

50,000 BC - 25,000 BC : Mesolithic Age (Middle Stone Age)
Hunting and food gathering is the main occupation. Early men of Mesolithic age made fire by rubbing sticks together, known as Arani in sanskrit.
Quartzite, flint, crystal. agate, chalesdon and jasper types of rocks and stones were used to make implements during this period.

25,000 BC - 5000 BC : Neolithic (New Stone Age)
The Neolithic or New Stone Age began when humans invented agriculture. Neolithic people learned how to farm and domesticate animals and are not nomadic. 

A lot of Neolithic people began to live in the fertile crescent.
Out of the material remains of the Neolithic people, which survived 
the ravages of time, was the stone-axe, made out of igneous or metamorphic; rocks, such as diorite, dolerite and basalt, The other less common varieties are small tools either hafted or used as adzes, small chisels, picks, fabricators, hammer-stones and sling stones, etc. 

Rock paintings found in Telangana reveal the love humans had for art and nature as long ago as 10,000 BCE. These paintings also reveal that a plethora of wild animals existed across the length and breadth of the state once upon a time.An interesting rock painting is that of a giraffe at Pandavulagutta in Warangal, as in the present world giraffes are found only in Africa. One can get a glimpse into the prehistoric man’s mind by looking at rock art which exists on walls and ceilings of caves, rock shelters and isolated boulders.

Below are some of Neolithic sites excavated in Telangana
Nalgonga   : Thogarrai Karimnagar : Kadambapur, Budigapalli
Warangal   : Decerappula,Polakonda.

5000 BC  : Megalithic (Iron or Metal Age)

Iron was used by the megalithic people to meet domestic, warfare and agricultural needs.

Iron Age may have come into existence in Telangana much before the rest of the world. At least that's the conclusion reached by archaeologists excavating the University of Hyderabad campus who found iron artefacts dating back to roughly 2,200 BC.
A megalith is a large, often undressed stone, most megalithic monuments consist of a number of stones, which are fitted together without the use of mortar or cement.

Megaliths are a special class of Monuments in Deccan particularly in Telangana State. Almost all types of megalithic monuments like menhirs, stone circles, dolmens and dolmonoid cists are reported in hundreds of villages in all Telangana Districts. 

Discovery of cruciform monoliths in male and female forms known as Statue-Menhirs on the Mallugrugutta (Warangal) Galabha, Kachanapally (Khammam) is a unique feature in the megalithic culture of the mid-Godavari valley. The Megalithic monuments located in Telangana are usually dated anywhere between 1000 B.C and 200 A.D.

At Pullur Banda village (18°10'34"N 78°48'41"E), Siddipet Mandal, Medak district, there are nearly 50 Megalithic burials located. These are classified into three types viz., Menhir, Cairns and Dolmens. 

700 BC - 300 BCJanapadas
The Janapadas were the realms, republics and kingdoms of the Indian Vedic period the (Iron Age) from about 1200 BCE. Concluding with the rise of sixteen Mahajanapadas ("great janapadas"), most of the states were later annexed by more powerful neighbours, whilst others remained independent.

Asmaka (One of the 16 Mahajanapadas)
Founder   : Unknown (Believed to be Asmaka)
Capitals  : Potana or Potali or Paudanya of Mahabharata or Bodhan.
Languages : Prakrit
Religion  : Budhism, Jainism, Hinduism

"Assaka" (Prakrit) or "Asmaka" (Sanskrit) signifies "stony region" and was located in the Deccan region.
Modern day Bodhan (Nizamabad) is believed to be the capital of Assaka Janapada. 

The reference to Asmaka Janapada, part of present Telangana, as one of the 16 Janapadas in ancient India proves that there exist​ed an advanced stage of society.

Ruled  regions of Karimnagar and Warangal

Sahara / Sebaka Kingdom
Capital : Dhulikatta (Karimnagar)

Mahismati Kingdom
Regions of Nalgonda and Mahabubnagar

Nanda Dynasty : Asmaka was annexed into Magadha by Mahapadma Nanda (345 - 329) and recieved the title of "Destroyer of Kshatriyas" when he founded the Nanda Dynasty.

302 BC - 298 BC : Megasthenes (Greek ethnographer and explorer) Visited India around 300 BC as an Ambassador of Seleucus I of Syria to Pataliputra capital of Mauryan Empire, wrote that a powerful race called Andarae controlling countless villages and 30 well-built fortified towns. Much gold is found in their country.

300 BC : Bindusura (298 BC – 272 BC) son of Chandragupta (320 - 298) of Mauryan Empire conquered territory in vast deccan plateau of peninsular India (the modern states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh)

300 BC - 232 BC :  Mauryan Empire (322 BC –185 BC)
Founder   : Chandragupta Maurya (320 BC - 298 BC) 
Capital   : Pataliputra
Languages : Prakrit
Religion  : Budhism, Jainism, Brahmanism

Came to power by overthrowing the Nanda Dynasty in 322 BC.

One of the first five disciples of the Buddha, Kondanna is a typical name from Telangana and though there is no exact information about his native place, the earliest known Buddhist township of Kondapur in Medak district is believed to be after him. The Buddha himself famously acknowledged that it was Kondanna who understood him properly. The Buddhist sources say that Bavari, a Brahmin from Badanakurti in Karimnagar sent his disciples to all the way to north India to learn Buddhism and spread the message in this region. 

Maharathi Dynasty
Ruled regions of Khammam, Nalgonda and Mahabunagar

c.232 BC - c.220 AD : Satavahana Dynasty
Founder   : Simuka
Capitals  : Kotilingala, Amaravati, Paithan.
Languages : Prakrit, Sanskrit, Telugu
Religion  : Budhism, Jainism, Hinduism

Excavations in kotilingala found punch marked coins of Pre Satavahana rulers 

Gobhada about 25 years

Siri Kamvaya about 15 years

Vayasiri about 10 years

Samagopa about 40 years

Kotilingala Kings might have the support of Shunga Dynasty and when the last ruler of the Shunga dynasty, Devabhuti, was overthrown by Vasudeva of the Kanva dynasty in 75 BC. Siri Satavahana the subordinate of Samagopa might have supported Kanvas and overthrown the rule of Samagopa.

c.75 BC - 30 BC : Simuka and Naraua
The coins of Simuka are found along with the coins of Naraua, most probably a descendant of Samagopa, who might have defeated Siri Satavahana and captured the power temporarily. Chimuka (Simukha) might have regained the power or Siri Satavahana and Simuka Satavahana one and same, where Simuka first started issuing coins under Satavahana and later inscribed full name on the coins. 

Simuka 'a servant of last kanva king' killed his master Susarman in about 30 B.C and became independent.

The earliest capital of the Satavahanas was Kotilingala  in Telangana and then moved to the other popular capitals like Paithan (Pratishthana) and Amaravati (Dhanyakataka / Dharanikota).  

The coins issued by the Satavahana kings Simuka, Siri Satavahana, Satakani I, Satasiri, Satakani II, Vasittiputta Pulumayi, Vasittiputta Satakani and their governors were discovered in Kotilingala. These discoveries testify the fact that Telangana was the nucleus of Satavahana Empire.

The coins of Suryamitra (1st century BC) of Vidarbha Kingdom were overstruck by the Satavahana ruler Satakarni-I.

King Kharavela of Kalinga was a contemporary of Satakarni I and gave him considerable trouble.

Vassals of Satavahanas
Chutus of Banavasi in North Karnataka
Abhiras in the western part of the kingdom
Pallavas of Kanchipuram

Around 220 AD : Vashishthiputra Sri Santamula (Santamula I) founder of Ikshvakus and the general of Satavahanas declared his independence from Satavahanas by killing the last ruler Pulumavi III.

c.220 AD - c.270 AD : Ikshvakus (220 AD - 337 AD)
Founder   : Vashishthiputra Sri Santamula (Santamula I) : 220 - 233
Capitals  : Vijayapuri (Nagarjunakonda).
Language  : Telugu
Religion  : Hinduism, Budhism

Ikshvakus were originally feudatories of the Satavahanas and bore the title Mahatalavara.

Ruled Nalgonda and Khammam regions in Telangana.

In one of the Peddabankur (Karimnagar) inscriptions of Virapurushadatta, the Ikshvaku king of Vijayapuri, it was stated that his father Santamula I donated thousands of ploughs in order to promote agriculture. 

Santamula's mother was Vashishthi, as is evident from his name. Virapurushadatta was the son and successor of Santamula through his wife Madhari. He had a sister named Adavi Santisri. He took a queen from the Saka family of Ujjainand gave his daughter in marriage to a Chutu prince.

The Saka-Ikshvaku marriage was undoubtedly of some political significance. It may have checked the advance of Abhiras into Eastern Deccan.

The Saka-Ikshvaku marriage was undoubtedly of some political significance. It may have checked the advance of Abhiras into Eastern Deccan.

c.250 AD - c.340 AD : Abhiras / Abheeras
Founder  : Isvarasena
Language : Sanskrit
Religion : Hinduism (Saivism)

Abhiras were subordinate rulers of Western Satraps and declared independence after fall of Satavahanas.

278 AD :  Nagarjunakonda inscription in 278 AD shows that they are in power in 278 AD.

Vakatakas may have put an end to Abhiras c.340 AD in Telangana.

c.250 AD - c.500 AD : Vakataka Dynasty 
Founder   : Vindhyashakti (250 AD - 270 AD)
Capitals  : Vatsagulma, the present day Washim in Maharashtra.
Languages : Maharashtri Prakrit, Sanskrit
Religion  : Budhism, Hinduism

Vatsagulma branch Founder : Sarvasena (c.330 - 335 AD)  son of Pravarasena I (270 AD - 330 AD) ruled Telangana with Vatsagulma as Capital

By 514 AD the Vakatakas were confined to the territories of Telangana.

A princess of the then powerful ruling family of the Deccan the Vakatakas was given in marriage to Madhav Varma's son, Vikramendra Varma (508 - 528).

Vishnukundins might have put an end to Vakataka rule in remaining parts of Telangana State.

c.380 AD - c.624 AD : Vishnukundins 
Founder   : Indravarma/Maharajendrvarma (380 AD - 394 AD)
Capitals  : Amrabad in Mahaboonagar and extended it to Bhuvanagiri, Ramannapeta in Nalgonda and Keesaragutta in Rangareddy. Built Indrapala in Nalgonda. Eluru,  Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh
Languages : Telugu, Sanskrit
Religion  : Hinduism (Vaisnavism)

The reign of Madhav Varma-II (456-503 C.E.) was a golden age in the history of the Vishnukundins. It was during this period, the small Vishnukundin dynasty rose to imperial heights. 

Madhav Varma II led his arms against Ananda Gotrikas who were ruling over Guntur, Tenali and Ongole, probably enjoying subordinate position under the Pallavas of Kanchipuram.

Madhav Varma II next turned his attention against the Vengi kingdom which was under the Salankayanas. The Vengi region was annexed. The Godavari tract became part of the Vishnukundin territory. After these conquests the capital might have been shifted to Bezwada (Vijayawada), a more central location than Amarapura. These extensive conquests entitle him to the title of the lord of Dakshinapatha (southern country). After these various conquests Madhav Varma performed many Asvamedha, Rajasuya and other Vedic sacrifices.

It is likely that the Chalukya Pulikesin II (610– 642 AD) defeated Madhav Varma IV  in 617 - 18 AD. It is believed that Madhava's son Manchana Bhattaraka might have been expelled by the Chalukyas by the end of 624 AD.

The Vishnukundin reign came to an end with the conquest of the eastern Deccan by the Chalukya, Pulakeshin II. Pulakeshin appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as Viceroy to rule over the conquered lands. Eventually Vishnuvardhana declared his independence and started the Eastern Chalukya dynasty.

Hyderabad was captured by Badami Chalukyan King Pulakeshin II in 612 AD.

c.450 AD - c.612 AD : Durjaya Dynasty
Founder : Rana Durjaya
Durjaya dynasty, was a descendant of Karikala, the great Chola monarch who started as vassals to Vishnukundins.

It is likely that Maharaja Ranadurjaya, the first ruler of this SriramakaSyapa family , was a contemporary of Vishnukundin Madhavavarman II (456-503 A.D.) and his subordinate for some time.


Prithvi Maharaja ruled over a vast kingdom extending from Jajpur (Vaitarani) to the river Godavari in the south.

This King defeated Vishnukundin king Vikramendra Varma II (555-569) and declared independence.

C. A. D 611 may be approximately fixed as the date of Pulakesin II's victory over Prithvimaharaja. We get a reference to the horrors of the battle evidently fought between Pulakesin II and Prithvi Maharaja on the bank of the Kunala or the Kolleru on the left bank of which stood the fortress of Pistapura.

c.612 AD - 753 AD : Badami Chalukyas (543 AD - 753 AD)
Founder   : Pulakeshin I
Capitals  : Badami
Languages : Kannada, Sanskrit
Religion  : Jainism, Hinduism

Pulakeshin II occupied Telangana in 612 AD.

The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi.

The Chalukya dynasty was established by Pulakeshin I in 543. Pulakeshin I took Vatapi (modern Badami in Bagalkot district, Karnataka) under his control and made it his capital.

642 AD - 655 AD: Pallava King Narasimhavarman I (630 - 668 AD) defeated Pulakeshin II.

753 AD : Yudhamalla I of Vemulawada Chalukyas and Rashtrakuta Dantudurga planned and carried out the overthrow of Kirtivarman II, the last Chalukya ruler of Badami.

753 AD - 973 AD : Rashtrakuta Dynasty
Founder   : Dantidurga
Capitals  : Manyakheta
Languages : Kannada, Sanskrit
Religion  : Jainism, Hinduism

The Elichpur clan was a feudatory of the Badami Chalukyas, and during the rule of Dantidurga, it overthrew Chalukya Kirtivarman II and went on to build an empire with the Gulbarga region in modern Karnataka as its base. This clan came to be known as the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, rising to power in South India in 753. 

c.750 AD to 973 AD : Vemulavada Chalukyas (vassals to Rashtrakuta Dynasty) ruled Karimnagar and Nizamabad.

c.895 AD to 973 AD: Kakatiyas ruled as vassals to Rashrakuta ruled with kakatipura in warangal as capital. Also ruled koravi or kurravadi in warangal district.

In 973, seeing confusion in the Rashtrakuta empire after a successful invasion of their capital by the ruler of the Paramara dynasty of Malwa, Tailapa II, a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty ruling from Bijapur region defeated his overlords and made Manyakheta his capital.

815 AD - 1200 ADMudigonda Chalukyasruled as vassals to Vengi Chalukyas and later Kakatiyas, most of modern-day Khammam district.

973 AD - 1158 AD : Western Chalukyas (973 AD - 1189 AD)
Founder   : Tailapa II
Capitals  : Manyakheta, Kalyani (Basavakalyan in Bidar , Karnataka)
Languages : Kannada, Sanskrit
Religion  : Jainism, Hinduism

973 AD - 1150 AD : Kakatiyas, ruled as vassals to Western Chalukyas over most of the Warangal district, and parts of neighboring Karimnagar district with Anumakonda (Hanumakonda) as capital held since the rule of Beta I.

1075 AD - 1165 AD : The Polavasa chiefs (Descendents of Rashtrakuta Dynasty) were subordinates of the Western Chalukyas ruling parts of Karimnagar and Warangal, but revolted against their overlords. However, they were eventually subdued by Chalukya King Jagadekamalla II, with the support of Kakatiya King Beta II (1076 - 1108) for which he was awarded Sabbi-1000 region (modern-day Karimnagar district).

1080 AD - 1260 AD : Kanduru Cholas 
Ruled parts of Mahabubnagar (Jadcharla and Acchampet taluks) and Nalgonda (Nalgonda and Miryalguda taluks) districts with Kanduru  Panugallu and Vardhamanpura as their capitals. 

1104 AD - 1108 AD : Paramara Jagaddeva youngest son of Udayaditya of 
Paramara Dynasty. Jagaddeva worked under the Western Chalukyas as the governor of Kollipaka-7000 province in present Adilabad district, which was located immediately west of the Kakatiya lands. The territory of Kollipaka was governed by Jagaddeva between 1104 and 1108. However, he was eventually deprived of this position by King Vikramaditya VI, after he attempted to establish an independent kingdom in the province. King Vikramaditya appointed his own son, Kumara Somesvara, to replace Jagaddeva as governor. In retaliation, Jagaddeva seems to have allied himself with the Polavasa chiefs (who were also eager to break free from Chalukya dominance), and attacked other states who remained allied with the Western Chalukyas. In particular, Jagaddeva launched an attack on the Kakatiyas to his east.

So long Vikramadiya VI (1076 AD - 1126 AD) lived, Prola II of Kakatiya owed allegiance 

1136 AD : Prolla II (1116 - 1158) of Kaktiya is responsible for subduing the Telugu Cholas of Kandur who defeated King Govinda and gave his kingdom to Udayaditya.

1137 AD : Defeated Kumara Tailapa.

1149 AD : The last known Kakatiya epigraph as subordinates is Sanigaram inscription. 
Tailapa-III or Kuamara Tailapa was defeated by Kakatiya Prola II around 1149 AD and asserts his independence over Western Chalukyas.

c.895 AD - 1323 AD : Kakatiya Dynasty 
Founder   : Venna
Capitals  : Hanamkonda, Warangal
Languages : Telugu
Religion  : Jainism, Hinduism (Saivism)

Kaktiya Erra (895 - 940 AD) is given the land of Kurravadi in Warangal, in repayment for the services of his father Gunda III (870 - 895 AD) by Rashtrakuta king Krishna II (878-914)

An ambitious sovereign king, Rudradeva (1158 - 1195) extends the boundaries of his kingdom: in the north (taking in modern day Karimnagar, and East Godavari); in the south (where he turns his attention to the Kandur Telugu Chola kings Bhima and Udaya Choda in Nalagonda and Mahboobnagar, sacking their cities, Vardhamana and Kandur); and in the east (the Chalukya Chola regions of king Rajaraja III).

Feudatories of Kakatiyas
Recherla ChiefsElkurti Branch
Ruled areas in Warangal, Nalgonda, Rangareddy.
Recherla Rudra  

Recherla Chiefs - Pillalamarri Branch
Ruled areas in Nalgonda.
Recherla Nama & Beta

Ruled areas in Khammam.

Ruled areas in Khammam, Nalgonda and Warangal.

Malyala Chiefs
Ruled areas in Karimnagar, Mahabubnagar and Warangal.

Cheraku Chiefs
Ruled areas in Mahabubnagar and Nalgonda.

Kayastha Chiefs
Ruled areas in Nalgonda.

Gona Chiefs 
Ruled areas in Nalgonda.
Ruled Vardhamanapuram. Gona Budhareddy and Gona Gannareddy are the great kings who helped Kakatiya Kings. The main centres of this Kingdom are Vardhamanpuram (Vaddemin of Bijinapally Mandal) and Budapuram (Bhoothpur).


Ruled areas in Mahabubnagar
Ruled Amanagallu, Charikonda, Irvin and Vangur (Mahabubnagar). 
Rudraya Reddy was the great king of this dynasty.

Yadava Dynasty
During the period of Kakati Mahadeva who defeated by Yadava Kings, this area was under the rule of Yadava of Devagiri. "Sthanumantri" the Dandanayaka of Yadava King Ramachandradeva laid the inscription at Shiva Temple of Magatala (Makthal) about the rule of Yadavas in this area.

1220 AD - 1750 AD : Gonds of Adilabad
Capital      : Sirpur
Founder      : Kolkhil 
Royal Symbol : Lion

Kolkhil ( 1220 AD - 1240 AD)
Contemporary of Kakatiya Ganapatideva.

Neelkanth Shah was the last ruler of Gondwana Kingdom. He was captured as a prisoner by Raghoji Bhonsley who merged the Gondwana kingdom into Maratha kingdom. Maratha kingdom was defeated by British rulers and was given to Nizams. Thus the Gondwana Kingdom became part of Nizam state.

1310 : Malik Kafur general of Delhi Sultanate Alauddin Khilji defeated Prataprudra II and was forced to pay annual tribute to Delhi. It was probably at this time that the Koh-i-Noor diamond passed from Kakatiya ownership to that of Alauddin, along with 20,000 horses and 100 elephants.

1310 AD - 1320 AD : Khilji Dynasty
In 1318, Prataparudra II, the Kakatiya ruler, defied his masters in Delhi by refusing to send the annual tribute expected of him.Prataparudra II declared independance after Qutb-ud-din the laster ruler of Khilji Dynasty was murdered by Khusro Khan in 1320.

1323 : Ulug Khan son of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq captured Warangal from Parataparudra II.

1323 AD - 1336 AD : Tughlaq Dynasty
  • Musunuri Nayakas : In 1336 Kapaya Nayaka took control of Warangal from Malik Maqbul.
1325 AD – 1350 AD : Musunuri Nayaks
  • 1350 : Bahman Shah led his first campaign against Warangal and forced its ruler Kapaya Nayaka to cede to him the fortress.
1350 AD – 1518 AD : Bahmani Sultanate (1347 AD - 1527 AD)
Founder : Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah
Capital : Daulatabad, Gulbarga
  • Recherla chiefs of Rachakonda and Devarakonda served as vassals of Bahmanis after Musunuri Kapaaneedu was killed. Their descendents acquired Zamindaris (Samsthanams) in Mahboobnagar, Kurnool and Raichur Districts.
  • 1463 : Sultan Mohammad Shah Bahmani dispatched Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk to the Telangana region to quell disturbances. Sultan Quli quelled the disturbance and was rewarded as the administrator of the region. 

  • 1518 : Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk declared Independence
1326 AD - 1475 AD : Recherla Padmanayaka Dynasty
Capitals: Rachakonda and Devarakonda
Founder : Singama nayaka-I

1434 AD - 1518 AD : Orissa Gajapathis 
Prataparudra Gajapati reclaimed the regions taken away by Bahamani Sultans. Shitab Khan who helped him in this endeavour was appointed as his Subordinate ruler of Khammam and Orugallu regions.

1503 AD - 1518 AD: Sitapati Raju (known as Shitab Khan) ruled from Rachakonda(Nalgonda), Warangal and Khammam forts.

1515 AD : Vijayanagara Empire (Tuluva dynasty) - Krishna Deva Raya Rule (1509 AD – 1529 AD) occupied forts of Anantagiri, Urlugonda, Chityal, Arvapalli and Nalgonda, which had been under the rule of Prataparudra Gajapati, also defeated Shitabh Khan and occupied Warangal and Khammam regions.

Prataparudra Gajapati gave his daughter Takkadevi in marriage to Krishnadevaraya and was given above regions, which means the Telangana region was not under Vijayanagara Kingdom for long.

1518 AD – 1687 AD : Qutbshahis / Golconda Sultanate
  • In 1636, Shah Jahan forced the Qutb Shahis to recognize Mughal suzerainty, which lasted until 1687 when the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the Golcondan sultanate.
1687 AD - 1724 AD : Mughal Empire 
  • 1713 : Mir Qamaruddin Siddiqi was appointed governor by the Mughals.
  • 1724 : Mir Qamaruddin Siddiqi was granted the control of Hyderabad by the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah after defeating the rival from Maratha Empire.
1724 AD - 1948 AD : Asaf Jahis
  • 1798 : Hyderabad became the first Indian royal state to accede to British protection under the policy of Subsidiary Alliance instituted by Arthur Wellesley. 
  • 1946 - 1951 : Telangana Rebellion 
  • Aug 15, 1947 : Indian Independence from British. Osman Ali Khan ASAF Jahi VII chose to remain independent. 
  • Sep 17, 1948 : Operation Polo, was a military operation ordered by then Indian Home Minister Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel on Sep 13 1948 in which the Indian Armed Forces invaded the State of Hyderabad and overthrew its Nizam on Sep 17 1948, integrating Hyderabad in to India.
Sep 17, 1948 - Oct 31, 1956 : Hyderabad State, India.

  • Sep 17 1948 - Dec 31 1949 : Major General J. N. Chaudhuri who led Operation Polo stayed on as Military Governor. 
  • 26 January 1950 - 31 October 1956 : Last Nizam, Osman Ali Khan ASAF Jahi VII as Rajpramukh. Rajpramukh was an administrative title in India which existed from India's independence in 1947 until 1956. Rajpramukhs were the appointed governors of certain of India's provinces and states. 
  • 26 Jan, 1950 - 6 March, 1952 : M. K. Vellodi was Chief Minister of the state appointed by Government of India. 
  • 6 March, 1952 - 31 October 1956 : In the 1952 Legislative Assembly election, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected Chief minister of Hyderabad State.
Nov 1, 1956 - June 1, 2014 : Andhra Pradesh State, India 
In December 1953, the States Reorganisation Commission was appointed to recommend the reorganisation of state boundaries. The panel was not in favour of an immediate merger of Telangana with Andhra state, despite their common language. With the intervention of the then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Telangana and Andhra states were merged on November 1, 1956. Nehru termed the merger a "matrimonial alliance having provisions for divorce".
2 June, 2014 : Telangana became 29 state of India.
On June 2, 2104, K Chandrasekhar Rao takes oath as the first chief minister of Telangana, India's 29th state.


The History of India By John McLeod

india as directed by megasthenes

Historical sketches of ancient Dekhan, by K. V. Subrahmanya Aiyer.

A history of the Deccan. By J. D. B. Gribble

Social and Cultural Life in Medieval Andhra